SLUMS: THE CONTEXT
source: UN-HABITAT,The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlement, Earthscan, London 2003
Around the world over 1 billion urban residents live in inadequate housing, mostly in slums and squatter settlements, where living conditions are poor and services are insufficient…
- currently there are some 1.2 billion people worldwide experiencing ‘income poverty’, meaning they live on the equivalent of less than 1 dollar per day; (1)
- approximately 21 million new housing units are required each year in developing countries to accommodate growth in the number of households during the period between 2000 and 2010 period. Some 14 million additional units would be required each year for the next 20 years if the current housing deficit is to be replaced by 2020; (2)
- households in cities of developing countries need an average of 8 times their annual income to buying a house; in Africa, they need an average of 12.5 times their annual income, while in Latin America, they only need 5.4 times their annual income. The highest rents are in the Arab States, where a household spends an average of 45% of its monthly income on rent;
- 75% of the world’s countries have constitutions or national laws that promote the full and progressive realisation of the right to adequate housing;
- 61% of countries in the world have constitutions or national laws that protect against forced evictions;
- in cities of the developing world, 1 out of every 4 households lives in poverty. 40% of African urban households are living below the locally defined poverty line;
- in the developing world, 29% of cities have areas considered as ‘inaccessible’ or ‘dangerous’ to the police. In Latin America and the Caribbean, this figure is 48%.
(1) World Bank, World Development Report, Washington, 2000.
(2) UNCHS (Habitat), Basic Facts on Urbanisation, Nairobi, 1999.